ИССЛЕДОВАНИЯ

Здесь собраны новейшие исследования.

Антропология/Эволюция

Body size downgrading of mammals over the late Quaternary Животные значительно уменьшились в размерах за последние 2 миллиона лет.

Exceptionally high δ15N values in collagen single amino acids confirm Neandertals as high-trophic level carnivores  

Наши предки были карниворами не более 50,000 лет тому назад. Ели больших животных.

Stable isotopes reveal patterns of diet and mobility in the last Neandertals and first modern humans in Europe

Miki Ben-Dor PhD

Карнивор

снижение клетчатки благоприятно влияет на запоры

 The Role of Fiber in Energy Balance  Astrid Kolderup Hervik

Stopping or reducing dietary fiber intake reduces constipation and its associated symptoms

Reduction of phytic acid and enhancement of bioavailable micronutrients in food grains

Health Implications of Beef Intramuscular Fat Consumption Troy et al 2016

Uric acid provides an antioxidant defense in humans against oxidant- and radical-caused aging and cancer: a hypothesis.

Uric acid and glutathione levels during short-term whole body cold exposure.

Процессы кетоза

Cahill’s starvation studyLiver and kidney metabolism during prolonged starvation (Owen et al., 1969)

β-hydroxybutyrate: Much more than a metabolite John C. Newman and Eric Verdin

Ketoacids? Good medicine? George F. Cahill, Jr and Richard L. Veech 2003

Альцгеймер

Anti-Oxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Ketogenic Diet: New Perspectives for Neuroprotection in Alzheimer’s Disease

APOE ε4, the door to insulin-resistant dyslipidemia and brain fog? A case study.

Свободные радикалы

The two faces of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in adipocyte function and dysfunction

Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress Responses to High-Carbohydrate and High-Fat Meals in Healthy Humans

«a high-carbohydrate meal may evoke a greater postprandial oxidative stress response, whereas both fat and carbohydrate increased IL6. We speculate that the observed increases in postprandial IL6, without increases in any other markers of inflammation, may indicate a normal IL6 response to enhance glucose uptake, similar to its role postexercise.»

Reactive oxygen species, nutrition, hypoxia and diseases: Problems solved?

How mitochondria produce reactive oxygen species

Hydrogen peroxide: a Jekyll and Hyde signalling molecule

β-Hydroxybutyrate Elicits Favorable Mitochondrial Changes in Skeletal Muscle

Долголетие

Inflammation, But Not Telomere Length, Predicts Successful Ageing at Extreme Old Age: A Longitudinal Study of Semi-supercentenarians.

Беременность

Direct toxicity of insulin on the human placenta and protection by metformin

Спорт

Ketogenic diet does not affect strength performance in elite artistic gymnasts

Anticatabolic Effects of Ketone Bodies in Skeletal Muscle

Effects of 3-hydroxybutyrate and free fatty acids on muscle protein kinetics and signaling during LPS-induced inflammation in humans: anticatabolic impact of ketone bodies

Неалкогольное ожирение печени

меньше фруктозы — меньше жира в печени

Онко

HDAC Inhibitors as Epigenetic Regulators of the Immune System: Impacts on Cancer Therapy and Inflammatory Diseases

CANCER and KD on people Dr Colin Champ: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24442482  (2014)

(1913!) JMR, Van Ness, E «The effect of the non-carb diet upon the growth of sarcomea in rats» LArge study. 

P. Goodwin breast cancer https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11773152

5 years, higher insulin worse outcomes..

Emond JA «Risk of breast cancer reccurence assoc. with carb intake» 2014 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24755714

hi carb diet 500% more risk than low carb…

Anti-tumor FX of KD, meta analysis: 45% risk in death on KD. Diet is effective before cancer was given to mice and undergoing treatment. Not by itself.

PI3K inhibitor (blocks insulin), fights cancer (but the diet worked better). https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-018-0343-4

No randomized human studies on cancer yet.

Recommendations.

video: https://blog.virtahealth.com/dr-colin-champ-diet-cancer-warburg/

Атеросклероз, связь насыщенного жира и риск ссз

Diets with high-fat cheese, high-fat meat, or carbohydrate on cardiovascular risk markers in overweight postmenopausal women: a randomized crossover trial.

Dr. David Ludwig MD PHD. https://www.drdavidludwig.com/scientific-research/

https://www.bmj.com/content/363/bmj.k4583 20 weeks, randomized, controlled. same calories — low-carb — more energy burned.

The PURE Study,: largest-ever epidemiological study, contradicts diet-heart hypothesis

Associations of fats and carbohydrate intake with cardiovascular disease and mortality in 18 countries from five continents (PURE): a prospective cohort study
The Lancet (2017)
Mahshid Dehghan, Andrew Mente, Xiaohe Zhang, et al., on behalf of the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study investigators*
Interpretation of findings: “High carbohydrate intake was associated with higher risk of total mortality, whereas total fat and individual types of fat were related to lower total mortality. Total fat and types of fat were not associated with cardiovascular disease, myocardial infarction, or cardiovascular disease mortality, whereas saturated fat had an inverse association with stroke. Global dietary guidelines should be reconsidered in light of these findings.”

Non-systematic reviews:

“Saturated Fats Versus Polyunsaturated Fats Versus Carbohydrates for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Treatment”

Annual Review of Nutrition (2015)

Patty W. Siri-Tarino, PhD, Sally Chiu, PhD, Nathalie Bergeron, PhD, and Ronald M. Krauss, PhD, Atherosclerosis Research Program, Children’s Hospital Oakland Research Institute, Oakland, California

Conclusions: “Replacement of SFAs with polyunsaturated fatty acids has been associated with reduced CVD risk, although there is heterogeneity in both fatty acid categories. In contrast, replacement of SFAs with carbohydrates, particularly sugar, has been associated with no improvement or even a worsening of CVD risk…

Replacement of SFAs with CHOs [carbohydrates] has not been associated with benefit and may be associated with increased CVD risk….The effects of various SFA replacement scenarios on CVD risk factors other than lipids and lipoproteins are ambiguous…

“Intake of Saturated and Trans Unsaturated Fatty Acids and Risk of All Cause Mortality, Cardiovascular Disease, and Type 2 Diabetes: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies.” (on observational data)

The BMJ (Clinical Research ed.) (2015)

R.J. de Souza, Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Chanchlani Research Centre, McMaster University, A. Mente, Population Health Research Institute, McMaster University, et al.

Conclusion: “Saturated fats are not associated with all cause mortality, CVD, CHD, ischemic stroke, or type 2 diabetes, but the evidence is heterogeneous with methodological limitations.”

Association of Dietary, Circulating, and Supplement Fatty Acids with Coronary Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis” (on observational data on all fatty acids and RCTs on supplementation with polyunsaturated fats, o3s or o6s)

Annals of Internal Medicine (2014)

Rajiv Chowdhury, MD, PhD, University of Cambridge, Samantha Warnakula, University of Cambridge, et al.

Details: RCT data reviewed is on 105,085 participants; observational data is on roughly 550,000 participants. The RCT analysis combined trials that increased either omega 3s or omega 6s.

Conclusion: “Current evidence does not clearly support cardiovascular guidelines that encourage high consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids and low consumption of total saturated fats.”

Meta-analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies Evaluating the Association of Saturated Fat with Cardiovascular Disease

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2010)

Siri-Tarino PW, Children’s Hospital, Oakland Research Institute Oakland, Sun Q, MD, Departments of Nutrition and Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Hu FB, MD, Departments of Nutrition and Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, et al.

Conclusions: “A meta-analysis of prospective epidemiologic studies showed that there is no significant evidence for concluding that dietary saturated fat is associated with an increased risk of CHD or CVD. More data are needed to elucidate whether CVD risks are likely to be influenced by the specific nutrients used to replace saturated fat.”

Meta-analyses and systematic reviews (in chronological order):

A Systematic Review of the Evidence Supporting a Causal Link Between Dietary Factors and Coronary Heart Disease” (review of observational data and clinical trials)

Archives of Internal Medicine (2009)

Andrew Mente, MA, PhD, Associate Professor, Department of Clinical Epidemiology & Biostatistics, McMaster University, Lawrence de Koning, Clinical Assistant Professor, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Pediatrics, University of Calgary, et al.

Conclusions: “The evidence supports a valid association of a limited number of dietary factors and dietary patterns with CHD…. Insufficient evidence (< or =2 criteria) of association is present for intake of supplementary vitamin E and ascorbic acid (vitamin C); saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids;…”

Non-systematic reviews:

Saturated Fat, Carbohydrate, and Cardiovascular Disease” (Review of clinical trials)

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2010)

Siri-Tarino PW, Children’s Hospital, Oakland Research Institute Oakland, Sun Q, MD, Departments of Nutrition and Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Hu FB, MD, Departments of Nutrition and Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, et al.

Conclusions: “Although substitution of dietary polyunsaturated fat for saturated fat has been shown to lower CVD risk, there are few epidemiologic or clinical trial data to support a benefit of replacing saturated fat with carbohydrate.”

https://www.nutritioncoalition.us/saturated-fats-do-they-cause-heart-disease

Cardiovascular disease risk factor responses to a type 2 diabetes care model including nutritional ketosis induced by sustained carbohydrate restriction at 1 year: an open label, non-randomized, controlled study.

Овощи и их приготовление:

Эффект различных методов приготовления на количество оксалата в овощах.

Бульон

Bone Broth Mineral Content

Bone Broth, Gelatine, Oxalate, and Kidney Stones

Электролиты

Magnesium and stress Magdalena D. Cuciureanu and Robert Vink

Источники кальция и фосфора в Китайской диете (в которой портебляется мало молочных продуктов)

Кальций, молочка и кости.

Long-term ketogenic diet causes glucose intolerance and reduced β- and α-cell mass but no weight loss in mice.

Витамины

The menaquinone (vitamin K2) content of animal products and fermented foods.

Medical experiments carried out in Sheffield on conscientious objectors to military service during the 1939–45 war

Без углеводов нам требуется ~ 10 мг витамина Ц (about 1 lb of muscle meat or 1 oz of liver).

Гипербарическая кислородная терапия

https://www.ketonutrition.org/clinics-clinical-trials-1

Яйца

Dietary cholesterol from eggs increases plasma HDL cholesterol in overweight men consuming a carbohydrate-restricted diet.

An Experimental Ketogenic Diet for Alzheimer Disease Was Nutritionally Dense and Rich in Vegetables and Avocado

Сравнение обычной диеты с кето, по нормам RDI , AI

Холестерин


Migraines

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30974836

Effect of a four-week ketogenic diet on exercise metabolism in CrossFit-trained athletes.

An Experimental Ketogenic Diet for Alzheimer Disease Was Nutritionally Dense and Rich in Vegetables and Avocado.